Loom and Its Classifications

বৃহস্পতিবার, ৯ জুন, ২০১১


A mechanical device which interweaves yarns into a fabric. Usually there are two sets of yarns (warp and weft, which are interlaced to make the fabric.)

Classification of Loom:
The classification of loom is shown bellow;

1. Conventional / Shuttle Loom:
  • Plain Looms
  • Twill Looms
  • Dobby Looms
  • Jacquard Looms
  • Special Looms ( Pile, Gauge, Tri-axial etc. )
    2. Automatic Loom
    3. Modern / Shuttle-less Loom
    • Missile/ Projectile Looms
    • Rapier Looms
    • Air-Jet Looms
    • Water-jet Looms


    Weaving and Essential Weaving operations.

    A major method of fabric construction is weaving. However, the process of interlacing warp yarn with the inserted weft yarn in a definite order to form a fabric suitable for use as a dress material or industrial purpose is called weaving. The machine used for this purpose is called Loom. In a woven fabric, the lengthwise yarns, which run from the back to the fron of the loom and form the basic structure of the fabric are called the warp or end. The crosswise yarns are the weft, also referred to as the weft or pick. The weft yarns undergo less strain in the weaving process.
    In any type of weaving process, four operations are fundamental. They are performed in sequence and are constantly repeated, and must be synchronized so that the operations occur in their sequence and do not interfere with one another.
    1. Shedding : Raising specific warp yarns by means of the harness or heddle frame/shaft.
    2. Picking : Inserting weft yarns through the shed.
    3. Beating Up : Pushing weft yarns firmly in place by means of the REED
    4. Taking Up and Letting off : Winding the finished fabric on the cloth beam and releasing more of the warp from the warp beam.


    Weaves and their Characteristics

    শনিবার, ২৮ মে, ২০১১

    The three basic weaves in common use for the majority of fabrics are plain, twill, and satin, with some variations. Important constructions are also obtained from the following weaves: Pile, double cloth, gauze, swivel, lappet, dobby, and jacquard. Table shows in details

    Weave Structure Properties Typical Fabric
    Each weft passes alternatively over and under each warp in a square pattern
    Easily produced, inexpensive, duarable and adaptable dyeing, printing and finishing.
    Batiste, Cheesecloth, Cretonne, Gingham, Parcel, Voil.
    Two or more warps simultaneously interlaced with one or more weft.
    Inexpensive, drapable, resilient, absorbent, soils more easily.
    Monk's cloth, Oxford,
    Plain weave with wales or cords in warp or weft.
    Drapes well, durability affected by pronounced rips, yarn slippage.
    Bengaline, broadcloth, poplin,
    Warp or weft floats over two or more counterpart yarns in progressively stepped up right or left direction.
    Srong, increased drapability, flexible resilient, and lustrous.
    Chevot, denim, drill, fabardine, serge, tweed,
    Four or more shaft with warp floats in interrupted diagonal,
    Lustrous, excrllent drapability, floated fashion.
    Satin, Slipper satin, crepeback stin.
    Four or more shafts with weft floats in interruted
    Similar to Satin Sateen
    Combination of plain and satin or Sateen weaves.
    Irregular, industinct pattern, textured surface.
    Granite, moss crepe, sand crepe.
    Extra set of warps or wefts woven over ground yarns of plain or twill weave to form loops.
    Soft, warm, resilient, absorbent, interesting surface effects,
    Cut and uncut pile fabrics ranging from toweling to rugs.
    Cut Pile
    Pile Loops cut As Pile
    Corduroy, Velvet, velveteen
    Uncut Pile
    Pile loops intact As Pile Frieze, Terry,
    Double cloth
    Two fabrics of independent weaves woven together with extra set of yarns.
    Strong Warm, bulky
    Blanket, coatings, upholstery
    Pairs of warps twisted over each other with each passing of weft
    Open mesh, sheer but durable for its weight.
    Grenadine, marquisette.
    Small designs interwoven on surface of fabric with extra weft yarn insertion.
    Attractive design yarns tend to roughness on back side.
    Dotted swiss, Madras
    Small designs, stitched into fabric during weaving.
    Attractive designs are more durable than swivel
    Madras, Grenadine.
    Small, geometric designs composed of short floats created by dobby loom attachment.
    Attractive generally good body.
    Hukaback, Granite cloth, Pique.
    Any combination of weaves and patterns possible since each warp is individually controlled with each pick passage.
    Attractive, drapes well.
    Brocade, damask, tapestry.
    Three yarns construction at various angles
    Strong, stable, minimum stretch.
    Industrial uses and home furnishings,


    Weave and Its Types


    The fabric weave or design is the manner in which the warp and weft are interlaced. The pattern or repeat is the smallest unit of the weave which when repeated will produce the design required in the fabric. There are many ways of representing a weave, a most familiar method being to use square design paper.

    There are different types of weave for the production of fabrics, such as:
    1. Plain weave
      • Basket/ Matt weave
      • Ribbed ( Warp & Wet )
    2. Twill weave 
    3. Satin and Sateen weave
    4. Variation of Basic weave.
      • Crepe
      • Pile (Cut/Uncut)
      • Double Cloth
      • Gauze (Leno)
      • Swivel
      • Lappet
      • Dobby
      • Jacquard
      • Tri-axial.
    1. Plain Weave

    The plain weave repeats on 2 Ends × 2 Picks. The plain fabric comprises a high percentage of the total production of woven fabrics and it can be produced on a loom with two harness. IT has the highest number of interlacing as compared with other weaves and therefore it produces the firmest fabric.

    2. Twill Weave

    Twill weave, the second basic weave is characterized by diagonal lines running at angles varying between 15 and 75 degrees. A Twill Weave is denoted by using numbers above and below a line ( such as 2/1 Twill which may be interpreted as two up one down). There are sever types of basic twill weaves, such as
    (a).1/2 Twill  (b).2/1 Twill  (c).2/2 Twill.  (d).2/3 Twill,  (e).3/2  (f) 3/3 Twill,  (g).4/4 Twill Etc.

    3. Satin and Sateen Weave

    Four or more shafts with warp floats or weft floats in interrupted diagonal. It is very lustrous, excellent drawable. It shows floated fashion. Its has some subcategories as, Satin, Slipper satin, Crepeback satin etc.

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